Polish satirical and philosophical science fiction writer. Lem's books have been translated into some 41 languages and sold some 27 million copies. He is probably the best single sci-fi author of the late 20th century not to write in English. Lem often wrote in comical style, but examined serious moral questions about technological progress, the limits of science, and our place in the universe.
In a autobiographical essay Lem told that when his IQ was measured in high school, it was over 180. Lem studied medicine at Lviv University and at Jagiellonian University in Kraków, but his studies were interrupted by World War II. During the war and Nazi occupation Lem worked as a car mechanic and welder, and was a member of the resistance fighting against the Germans. With false papers that concealed his Jewish origins, he avoided concentration camps. Toward the end of the war Poland was occupied by the Red Army and the country was closely controlled by the Soviet Union for the next 50 years. In 1946 Lem moved to Kraców. He worked a research assistant in a scientific institution and started to write stories on his spare time. He also wrote articles in the professional press.
After the collapse of communism in eastern Europe, Lem turned to writing reports on future trends, including computer crime and the ethical problems of the internet.
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Lem,Stanislaw-Chain of Chance
Lem,Stanislaw-His Masters Voice
Lem,Stanislaw-Memoirs Found in a Bathtub
Lem,Stanislaw-Return from the Starsv3.0
Lem,Stanislaw-Star Diaries 23rd Voyage
Lem,Stanislaw-Talesof Pirx the Pilot
Lem,Stanislaw-The Futurological Congress
Lem,Stanislaw-The Offer of King Krool
Lem,Stanislaw-The Star Diaries 02-Memoirs of a Space TravelerE