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Bioinspiration and Biomimicry in Chemistry: Reverse-Engineering Nature

Posted By: insetes
Bioinspiration and Biomimicry in Chemistry: Reverse-Engineering Nature

Bioinspiration and Biomimicry in Chemistry: Reverse-Engineering Nature By Gerhard Swiegers, Jean-Marie Lehn, Janine Benyus
2012 | 508 Pages | ISBN: 0470566671 | PDF | 11 MB


Can we emulate nature's technology in chemistry?Through billions of years of evolution, Nature has generated some remarkable systems and substances that have made life on earth what it is today. Increasingly, scientists are seeking to mimic Nature's systems and processes in the lab in order to harness the power of Nature for the benefit of society.Bioinspiration and Biomimicry in Chemistry explores the chemistry of Nature and how we can replicate what Nature does in abiological settings. Specifically, the book focuses on wholly artificial, man-made systems that employ or are inspired by principles of Nature, but which do not use materials of biological origin.Beginning with a general overview of the concept of bioinspiration and biomimicry in chemistry, the book tackles such topics as:Bioinspired molecular machinesBioinspired catalysisBiomimetic amphiphiles and vesiclesBiomimetic principles in macromolecular scienceBiomimetic cavities and bioinspired receptorsBiomimicry in organic synthesisWritten by a team of leading international experts, the contributed chapters collectively lay the groundwork for a new generation of environmentally friendly and sustainable materials, pharmaceuticals, and technologies. Readers will discover the latest advances in our ability to replicate natural systems and materials as well as the many impediments that remain, proving how much we still need to learn about how Nature works.Bioinspiration and Biomimicry in Chemistry is recommended for students and researchers in all realms of chemistry. Addressing how scientists are working to reverse engineer Nature in all areas of chemical research, the book is designed to stimulate new discussion and research in this exciting and promising field. Short description This book reviews and summarizes the many and varied forms of bioinspiration and biomimicry that are found in chemistry, from the crude to the highly sophisticated, from the near-biological to the totally industrial and abiological. It critically evaluates our true understanding of biological processes and systems by considering our ability to replicate them in non-biological settings. Research chemists will find critical and holistic evaluation of chemical processes in nature. From the contents Foreword xvii Jean-Marie Lehn Foreword xix Janine Benyus Preface xxiii Contributors xxv 1. Introduction: The Concept of Biomimicry and Bioinspiration in Chemistry 1 Timothy W. Hanks and Gerhard F. Swiegers 1.1 What is Biomimicry and Bioinspiration? 1 1.2 Why Seek Inspiration from, or Replicate Biology? 3 1.3 Other Monikers: Bioutilization, Bioextraction, Bioderivation, and Bionics 5 1.4 Biomimicry and Sustainability 5 1.5 Biomimicry and Nanostructure 7 1.6 Bioinspiration and Structural Hierarchies 9 1.7 Bioinspiration and Self-Assembly 11 1.8 Bioinspiration and Function 12 1.9 Future Perspectives: Drawing Inspiration from the Complex System that is Nature 13 2. Bioinspired Self-Assembly I: Self-Assembled Structures 17 Leonard F. Lindoy, Christopher Richardson, and Jack K. Clegg 2.1 Introduction 17 2.2 Molecular Clefts, Capsules, and Cages 19 2.3 Enzyme Mimics and Models: The Example of Carbonic Anhydrase 28 2.4 Self-Assembled Liposome-Like Systems 30 2.5 Ion Channel Mimics 32 2.6 Base-Pairing Structures 34 2.7 DNA-RNA Structures 36 2.8 Bioinspired Frameworks 38 2.9 Conclusion 41 3. Bioinspired Self-Assembly II: Principles of Cooperativity in Bioinspired Self-Assembling Systems 47 Gianfranco Ercolani and Luca Schiaffino 3.1 Introduction 47 3.2 Statistical Factors in Self-Assembly 48 3.3 Allosteric Cooperativity 50 3.4 Effective Molarity 52 3.5 Chelate Cooperativity 55 3.6 Interannular Cooperativity 60 3.7 Stability of an Assembly 62 3.8 Conclusion 67 4. Bioinspired Molecular Machines 71 Christopher R. Benson, Andrew I. Share, and Amar H. Flood 4.1 Introduction 71 4.2 Mechanical Effects in Biological Machines 78 4.3 Theoretical Considerations: Flashing Ratchets 83 4.4 Sliding Machines 86 4.5 Rotary Motors 102 4.6 Moving Larger Scale Objects 104 4.7 Walking Machines 106 4.8 Ingenious Machines 109 4.9 Using Synthetic Bioinspired Machines in Biology 111 4.10 Perspective 111 4.11 Conclusion 116 5. Bioinspired Materials Chemistry I: Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposites 121 Pilar Aranda, Francisco M. Fernandes, Bernd Wicklein, Eduardo Ruiz-Hitzky, Jonathan P. Hill, and Katsuhiko Ariga 5.1 Introduction 121 5.2 Silicate-Based Bionanocomposites as Bioinspired Systems 122 5.3 Bionanocomposite Foams 124 5.4 Biomimetic Membranes 126 5.5 Hierarchically Layered Composites 129 5.6 Conclusion 133 6. Bioinspired Materials Chemistry II: Biomineralization as Inspiration for Materials Chemistry 139 Fabio Nudelman and Nico A. J. M. Sommerdijk 6.1 Inspiration from Nature 139 6.2 Learning from Nature 144 6.3 Applying Lessons from Nature: Synthesis of Biomimetic and Bioinspired Materials 146 6.4 Conclusion 160 7. Bioinspired Catalysis 165 Gerhard F. Swiegers, Jun Chen, and Pawel Wagner 7.1 Introduction 165 7.2 A General Description of the Operation of Catalysts 168 7.3 A Brief History of Our Understanding of the Operation of Enzymes 169 7.4 Representative Studies of Bioinspired/Biomimetic Catalysts 177 7.5 The Relationship Between Enzymatic Catalysis and Nonbiological Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis 192 7.6 Selected High-Performance NonBiological Catalysts that Exploit Nature's Catalytic Principles 193 7.7 Conclusion: The Prospects for Harnessing Nature's Catalytic Principles 203 8. Biomimetic Amphiphiles and Vesicles 209 Sabine Himmelein and Bart Jan Ravoo 8.1 Introduction 209 8.2 Synthetic Amphiphiles as Building Blocks for Biomimetic Vesicles 210 8.3 Vesicle Fusion Induced by Molecular Recognition 216 8.4 Stimuli-Responsive Shape Control of Vesicles 224 8.5 Transmembrane Signaling and Chemical Nanoreactors 231 8.6 Toward Higher Complexity: Vesicles with Subcompartments 239 8.7 Conclusion 245 9. Bioinspired Surfaces I: Gecko-Foot Mimetic Adhesion 251 Liangti Qu, Yan Li, and Liming Dai 9.1 The Hierarchical Structure of Gecko Feet 251 9.2 Origin of Adhesion in Gecko Setae 252 9.3 Structural Requirements for Synthetic Dry Adhesives 253 9.4 Fabrication of Synthetic Dry Adhesives 254 9.4.1 Polymer-Based Dry Adhesives 254 9.4.2 Carbon-Nanotube-Based Dry Adhesives 278 9.5 Outlook 284 10. Bioinspired Surfaces II: Bioinspired Photonic Materials 293 Cun Zhu and Zhong-Ze Gu 10.1 Structural Color in Nature: From Phenomena to Origin 293 10.2 Bioinspired Photonic Materials 296 10.3 Conclusion and Outlook 317 11. Biomimetic Principles in Macromolecular Science 323 Wolfgang H. Binder, Marlen Schunack, Florian Herbst, and Bhanuprathap Pulamagatta 11.1 Introduction 323 11.2 Polymer Synthesis Versus Biopolymer Synthesis 325 11.3 Biomimetic Structural Features in Synthetic Polymers 330 11.4 Movement in Polymers 343 11.5 Antibody-Like Binding and Enzyme-Like Catalysis in Polymeric Networks 352 11.6 Self-Healing Polymers 355 12. Biomimetic Cavities and Bioinspired Receptors 367 Stephane Le Gac, Ivan Jabin, and Olivia Reinaud 12.1 Introduction 367 12.2 Mimics of the Michaelis-Menten Complexes of Zinc(II) Enzymes with Polyimidazolyl Calixarene-Based Ligands 368 12.3 Combining a Hydrophobic Cavity and A Tren-Based Unit: Design of Tunable, Versatile, but Highly Selective Receptors 377 12.4 Self-Assembled Cavities 383 12.5 Conclusion 391 13. Bioinspired Dendritic Light-Harvesting Systems 397 Andrea M. Della Pelle and Sankaran Thayumanavan 13.1 Introduction 397 13.2 Dendrimer Architectures 399 13.3 Electronic Processes in Light-Harvesting Dendrimers 403 13.4 Light-Harvesting Dendrimers in Clean Energy Technologies 407 13.5 Conclusion 413 14. Biomimicry in Organic Synthesis 419 Reinhard W. Hoffmann 14.1 Introduction 419 14.2 Biomimetic Synthesis of Natural Products 420 14.3 Biomimetic Reactions in Organic Synthesis 437 14.4 Biomimetic Considerations as an Aid in Structural Assignment 447 14.5 Reflections on Biomimicry in Organic Synthesis 448 15. Conclusion and Future Perspectives: Drawing Inspiration from the Complex System that Is Nature 455 Clyde W. Cady, David M. Robinson, Paul F. Smith, and Gerhard F. Swiegers 15.1 Introduction: Nature as a Complex System 455 15.2 Common Features of Complex Systems and the Aims of Systems Chemistry 457 15.3 Examples of Research in Systems Chemistry 460 15.4 Conclusion: Systems Chemistry may have Implications in Other Fields 468 References 470 Index 473